Description

Given a binary tree, determine if it is a complete binary tree.

Definition of a complete binary tree from Wikipedia: In a complete binary tree every level, except possibly the last, is completely filled, and all nodes in the last level are as far left as possible. It can have between 1 and 2h nodes inclusive at the last level h.

Example 1:

Input: [1,2,3,4,5,6]
Output: true
Explanation: Every level before the last is full (ie. levels with node-values {1} and {2, 3}), and all nodes in the last level ({4, 5, 6}) are as far left as possible.

Example 2:

Input: [1,2,3,4,5,null,7]
Output: false
Explanation: The node with value 7 isn't as far left as possible.

Note:

  1. The tree will have between 1 and 100 nodes.

Solutions

1. BFS-Travel by level

# Time: O(n)
# Space: O(n)
# Definition for a binary tree node.
# class TreeNode:
#     def __init__(self, x):
#         self.val = x
#         self.left = None
#         self.right = None

class Solution:
    def isCompleteTree(self, root: TreeNode) -> bool:
        if not root:
            return True
        
        queue = collections.deque()
        queue.append(root)
        is_1st_none = False
        while queue:
            node = queue.popleft()
            if not node:
                is_1st_none = True
            else:
                if is_1st_none:
                    return False
                queue.append(node.left)
                queue.append(node.right)
        return True
# 119/119 cases passed (28 ms)
# Your runtime beats 93.74 % of python3 submissions
# Your memory usage beats 100 % of python3 submissions (12.8 MB)

References

  1. 958. Check Completeness of a Binary Tree