Given an array with n objects colored red, white or blue, sort them in-place so that objects of the same color are adjacent, with the colors in the order red, white and blue.
Here, we will use the integers 0, 1, and 2 to represent the color red, white, and blue respectively.
Note: You are not suppose to use the library’s sort function for this problem.
Input: [2,0,2,1,1,0] Output: [0,0,1,1,2,2]
- A rather straight forward solution is a two-pass algorithm using counting sort. First, iterate the array counting number of 0’s, 1’s, and 2’s, then overwrite array with total number of 0’s, then 1’s and followed by 2’s.
- Could you come up with a one-pass algorithm using only constant space?
1. Two Pointers
左指针记录当前已知的 0 排好序后最右边的位置，右指针记录当前已知的 2，排好序后最左边的位置。然后更新左右指针，直到计数器从 0 遍历到右指针的位置。
# Time: O(n) # Space: O(1) class Solution: def sortColors(self, nums: List[int]) -> None: """ Do not return anything, modify nums in-place instead. """ n = len(nums) l, r = -1, n i = 0 while i < r: if nums[i] == 0: l += 1 nums[i], nums[l] = nums[l], nums[i] i += 1 elif nums[i] == 2: r -= 1 nums[i], nums[r] = nums[r], nums[i] else: i += 1 return nums # Runtime: 28 ms, faster than 98.10% of Python3 online submissions for Sort Colors. # Memory Usage: 12.7 MB, less than 100.00% of Python3 online submissions for Sort Colors.